Describe the capabilities of different deployment types.
Communities can be deployed from a Salesforce sandbox to a production org using Change Sets or the Metadata API. Community statuses define whether a community is accessible to external users or not.
As for other Salesforce configurations, change sets can be used to deploy community configuration between related Salesforce orgs. To use changes sets, the related orgs must have a deployment connection.
Change sets provide a graphical user interface for deployments and can be used with both Lightning and Salesforce Tabs + Visualforce communities. However, not all configurations can be deployed using change sets. Unsupported configurations must be deployed manually.
In addition to change sets, the Salesforce Metadata API can be used for deploying communities. Compared to change sets, the Metadata API supports more configurations.
The Metadata API provides a programmatical user interface for deployments. It can be used to retrieve, deploy, create, update, or delete customization.
Each community in a Salesforce org has one of the following statuses: Preview, Inactive, and Active. This status defines whether the community is publicly accessible. It can be changed under Administration > Settings in Community Workspaces.
Only the status Active makes a community available to the public and thus to external users. After deploying a community from a sandbox to a production org, the status of the community must there be changed to Active.
When the status of a community is changed to Active, all external users with a profile or permission set enabled for the community will receive a welcome email. This email contains the login credentials for the community.